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The working encyclopedia under the title, The Ostrogothic Papacy, states the era runs from 493 – 537 AD and that the Papacy election of March 483 AD was the first to take place without the existence of a Western Roman emperor. It authoritatively asserts the Papacy was strongly influenced by the Ostrogothic kingdom and if the pope was not an outright appointee of the Emperor. Furthermore, it adds the election and administration of popes during the period was extraordinarily influenced by Theodoric the Great and his successors Theohadad and Athalalric. Adding the period ends with the re-conquest of Rome by Justinian 1 in the Gothic War, which invariably kick-starts the “Byzantine Papacy (537 – 752 AD) on November 22, 498 AD and that the role of the Ostrogoths becomes very much pronounced in the first schism when two men were elected popes. Subsequently, that the triumph of Pope Symmachus (49-…
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The working encyclopedia under the title, The Ostrogothic Papacy, states the era runs from 493 – 537 AD and that the Papacy election of March 483 AD was the first to take place without the existence of a Western Roman emperor. It authoritatively asserts the Papacy was strongly influenced by the Ostrogothic kingdom and if the pope was not an outright appointee of the Emperor. Furthermore, it adds the election and administration of popes during the period was extraordinarily influenced by Theodoric the Great and his successors Theohadad and Athalalric. Adding the period ends with the re-conquest of Rome by Justinian 1 in the Gothic War, which invariably kick-starts the “Byzantine Papacy (537 – 752 AD) on November 22, 498 AD and that the role of the Ostrogoths becomes very much pronounced in the first schism when two men were elected popes. Subsequently, that the triumph of Pope Symmachus (49- 514 AD) over Antipope Laurentius is the first recorded example of simony in the papal history. Finally that it is in that era Pope Symmachus instituted the practice of popes naming their own successors, which lasted until an unpopular choice was made in 530 AD etc.
Writing about the Byzantine Papacy and Papal State, Wikipedia records the Byzantine Papacy was an era of Byzantine domination of the Papacy from 537 – 752 AD when popes required the approval of the Byzantine for Episcopal Consecration. It further states many popes were chosen from the apocrisiarii (liaisons from the pope to the emperor) or the inhabitants of Sicily. Emperor Justinian 1, having conquered the Italian peninsula in the Gothic War (533 – 554 AD) “appointed the next three popes” and that the practice continues with his successors, which later became delegated to the Exarchate of Ravenna. With the exception of Pope Martin 1, no pope at that time questions the authority of the Byzantine Monarch to confirm the election of the Bishop of Rome before consecration and that theological conflicts were rampant between popes and emperors in areas such as “iconoclasm and Monothelitism”; Greek speakers from Greece, Syria and Byzantine Sicily replaced members of the powerful Roman nobles in the papal chair during the period. It concludes under the Greek, on the other hand, popes constituted a “melting pot” of Western and Eastern Christian tradition that reflect in arts and as well as liturgy.
Now, writing about Popes Gregory 1 the Great, the free encyclopedia states he was born about 540 AD in the city of Rome. It also writes a medieval writer that provides an etymology in An Homily on Gregory’s birth–day highlights that his parents named him “gregorius, which is a Greek Name (sic), in the Latin Tongue, signifies Vigilantius while in English, Watchful etc. The Etymologist equally adds Gregory was very diligent in God’s Commandments and that Gregory was born into a very wealthy Patrician Roman family with close connections to the church; his father, Gordianus, served as a Senator, Prefect of the city of Rome and that he held the post of Regionarius in the Church. In addition, the Etymologist states Gregory’s great grand-father was Pope Felix 111 who was a nominee of the Gothic King, Theodoric. No wonder, then, in 579 AD that Pope Pelagius appointed Gregory as apocrisiarius (ambassador to the imperial court in Constantinople), a post he held until 586. And that Gregory was a part of the Roman delegation, which comprises of both lay and clerical officials that arrives in Constantinople in 578 AD to ask the emperor for military aid against the Lombards and with the Byzantine military focusing on the East that the entreaties proved abortive.
Therefore, in the year 584 AD, Pope Pelagius 11 writes to Gregory as apocrisiarius detailing the hardships that confront Rome and pleads with him to request Emperor Maurice to send a relief force. The working data adds but unfortunately for both Pope Pelagius 11 and Gregory that they were unaware the Emperor had already made up his mind to limit his efforts against the Lombards to intrigue and diplomacy by instigating the Franks against them. Accordingly, the free encyclopedia states it soon dawn on Gregory that the Byzantine emperors were unlikely to send such a force, given their more immediate difficulties with the Persians in the East and Avars and Slavs to the North. It equally highlights the records of Ekonomou thus, “if Gregory’s principal task was to plead the cause for Rome before the emperor, there seemed to have been little left for him to do once imperial policy towards Italy became evident. Therefore, Papal representatives that pressed their claims with excessive vigor could easily become a nuisance that would found themselves excluded from imperial presence altogether. Among others, we again found Gregory witnesses the Lombards, Visigoths and Franks align with Rome in Religion and throughout the middle Ages and that Gregory was known as “the Father of Christian Worship” due to his exemplary efforts in revising the Roman religious worship of his day. He concludes Gregory was one of the Latin Doctors of the Church and therefore considered a Saint in Catholic Church, Anglican Communion, Easter Orthodox Church and some Lutheran Churches. It is not surprising from Gregory intimidating credentials that in 590 AD and at the demise of Pope Pelagius 11 that he was elected by acclamation to succeed Pope.
Kindly recall record holds Emperor Justinian 1, having conquered the Italian peninsula in the Gothic War (533 – 554 AD) “appointed the next three popes” and that the practice continues with his successors that later became delegated to the Exarchate of Ravenna. Most importantly, it states with the exception of Pope Martin 1 that no pope at the time questions the authority of the Byzantine Monarch to confirm the election of the Bishop of Rome before consecration. So, the election of Gregory reigns between September 590 – 12 March 604 or 13 years and 191 days as Pope by acclamation to succeed Pope Pelagius 11 was also subjected to confirmation by the Roman Emperor Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius) that reigns from14 August 582 – 22 November 602. As you would have observed, Gregory was appointed Pope by an acclamation due to his family background and intimidating credentials. It follows therefore if Emperor Maurice did not consider Pope Gregory amenable to his whips and caprices to maintain the status quo of his administration that he would not have confirmed the election and consecration of Gregory 1 the Great as Pope, the general acclamation notwithstanding.
Please take judicious note that the Etymologist writes Gregory was very diligent in God’s Commandments also known as the Law of Moses that are embedded in the Old Testament Bible, which is part of the Old Covenant of Promise that now stands annulled and or fulfilled in the Lord Jesus Christ. Equally note that both the God’s Commandments and or Old Covenant of Promise stands fulfilled in the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, having paid the supreme sacrifice with his life on the cross of Calvary, as hitherto demanded by the Law. Most importantly, the Lord Jesus Christ, having abolished, annulled and or fulfilled the Abrahamic Old Covenant of Promise, the Law and its attendant Ordinances has now institutes a New Commandment, known as the tenets of the New Covenant of Grace that is embedded in the New Testament Bible before they were adulterated that shall be discussed in a separate post. Therefore, Cross of Calvary Foundation – ccfn Inc finds that as Gregory only was very diligent in the God’s Commandments and not, we repeat, not the tenets of the New Covenant of Grace, which Messiah the Son of God enunciates that he is bound to make a shipwreck on the Catholics in particular and the entire Christendom in general as we shall shortly highlight.
As the spate of uncertainty continues in the then Roman Empire, which makes Henry Moss to succinctly state even so it is very important to remember that in the eyes of the contemporaries the Roman Empire was still one and indivisible. He adds it would have been considered as falsehood the idea at that time to speak of either Eastern and or Western empire because the two blocs were still thought of as “the Eastern, or Western part (partes orinteis vel occidentis). Therefore, Rome has to devise a means to stabilize the administration of the whole empire by tightening her grip on the Vatican City and to that extent, the entire Christendom. First, it is to have a firm grip on the Christendom that makes the Emperor Constantine whose profession of being a Christian is highly debatable not only to decriminalize Christian worship but to make Christianity a Roman State…
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