Election and Consecration of Pope Gregory 1 the Great

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The working encyclopedia under the title, The Ostrogothic Papacy, states the era runs from 493 – 537 AD and that the Papacy election of March 483 AD was the first to take place without the existence of a Western Roman emperor.  It authoritatively asserts the Papacy was strongly influenced by the Ostrogothic kingdom and if the pope was not an outright appointee of the Emperor.  Furthermore, it adds the election and administration of popes during the period was extraordinarily influenced by Theodoric the Great and his successors Theohadad and Athalalric. Adding the period ends with the re-conquest of Rome by Justinian 1 in the Gothic War, which invariably kick-starts the “Byzantine Papacy (537 – 752 AD) on November 22, 498 AD and that the role of the Ostrogoths becomes very much pronounced in the first schism when two men were elected popes.  Subsequently, that the triumph of Pope Symmachus (49-…

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Election and Consecration of Pope Gregory 1 the Great

The working encyclopedia under the title, The Ostrogothic Papacy, states the era runs from 493 – 537 AD and that the Papacy election of March 483 AD was the first to take place without the existence of a Western Roman emperor.  It authoritatively asserts the Papacy was strongly influenced by the Ostrogothic kingdom and if the pope was not an outright appointee of the Emperor.  Furthermore, it adds the election and administration of popes during the period was extraordinarily influenced by Theodoric the Great and his successors Theohadad and Athalalric. Adding the period ends with the re-conquest of Rome by Justinian 1 in the Gothic War, which invariably kick-starts the “Byzantine Papacy (537 – 752 AD) on November 22, 498 AD and that the role of the Ostrogoths becomes very much pronounced in the first schism when two men were elected popes.  Subsequently, that the triumph of Pope Symmachus (49- 514 AD) over Antipope Laurentius is the first recorded example of simony in the papal history. Finally that it is in that era Pope Symmachus instituted the practice of popes naming their own successors, which lasted until an unpopular choice was made in 530 AD etc.

Writing about the Byzantine Papacy and Papal State, Wikipedia records the Byzantine Papacy was an era of Byzantine domination of the Papacy from 537 – 752 AD when popes required the approval of the Byzantine for Episcopal Consecration.  It further states many popes were chosen from the apocrisiarii (liaisons from the pope to the emperor) or the inhabitants of Sicily.  Emperor Justinian 1, having conquered the Italian peninsula in the Gothic War (533 – 554 AD) “appointed the next three popes” and that the practice continues with his successors, which later became delegated to the Exarchate of Ravenna.  With the exception of Pope Martin 1, no pope at that time questions the authority of the Byzantine Monarch to confirm the election of the Bishop of Rome before consecration and that theological conflicts were rampant between popes and emperors in areas such as “iconoclasm and Monothelitism”; Greek speakers from Greece, Syria and Byzantine Sicily replaced members of the powerful Roman nobles in the papal chair during the period.  It concludes under the Greek, on the other hand, popes constituted a “melting pot” of Western and Eastern Christian tradition that reflect in arts and as well as liturgy.

Now, writing about Popes Gregory 1 the Great, the free encyclopedia states he was born about 540 AD in the city of Rome. It also writes a medieval writer that provides an etymology in An Homily on Gregory’s birth–day highlights that his parents named him “gregorius, which is a Greek Name (sic), in the Latin Tongue, signifies Vigilantius while in English, Watchful etc.  The Etymologist equally adds Gregory was very diligent in God’s Commandments and that Gregory was born into a very wealthy Patrician Roman family with close connections to the church; his father, Gordianus, served as a Senator, Prefect of the city of Rome and that he held the post of Regionarius in the Church.  In addition, the Etymologist states Gregory’s great grand-father was Pope Felix 111 who was a nominee of the Gothic King, Theodoric.  No wonder, then, in 579 AD that Pope Pelagius appointed Gregory as apocrisiarius (ambassador to the imperial court in Constantinople), a post he held until 586.  And that Gregory was a part of the Roman delegation, which comprises of both lay and clerical officials that arrives in Constantinople in 578 AD to ask the emperor for military aid against the Lombards and with the Byzantine military focusing on the East that the entreaties proved abortive.

Therefore, in the year 584 AD, Pope Pelagius 11 writes to Gregory as apocrisiarius detailing the hardships that confront Rome and pleads with him to request Emperor Maurice to send a relief force.  The working data adds but unfortunately for both Pope Pelagius 11 and Gregory that they were unaware the Emperor had already made up his mind to limit his efforts against the Lombards to intrigue and diplomacy by instigating the Franks against them.  Accordingly, the free encyclopedia states it soon dawn on Gregory that the Byzantine emperors were unlikely to send such a force, given their more immediate difficulties with the Persians in the East and Avars and Slavs to the North.   It equally highlights the records of Ekonomou thus, “if Gregory’s principal task was to plead the cause for Rome before the emperor, there seemed to have been little left for him to do once imperial policy towards Italy became evident.  Therefore, Papal representatives that pressed their claims with excessive vigor could easily become a nuisance that would found themselves excluded from imperial presence altogether. Among others, we again found Gregory witnesses the Lombards, Visigoths and Franks align with Rome in Religion and throughout the middle Ages and that Gregory was known as “the Father of Christian Worship” due to his exemplary efforts in revising the Roman religious worship of his day. He concludes Gregory was one of the Latin Doctors of the Church and therefore considered a Saint in Catholic Church, Anglican Communion, Easter Orthodox Church and some Lutheran Churches. It is not surprising from Gregory intimidating credentials that in 590 AD and at the demise of Pope Pelagius 11 that he was elected by acclamation to succeed Pope.

Kindly recall record holds Emperor Justinian 1, having conquered the Italian peninsula in the Gothic War (533 – 554 AD) “appointed the next three popes” and that the practice continues with his successors that later became delegated to the Exarchate of Ravenna.  Most importantly, it states with the exception of Pope Martin 1 that no pope at the time questions the authority of the Byzantine Monarch to confirm the election of the Bishop of Rome before consecration.  So, the election of Gregory reigns between September 590 – 12 March 604 or 13 years and 191 days as Pope by acclamation to succeed Pope Pelagius 11 was also subjected to confirmation by the Roman Emperor Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius) that reigns from14 August 582 – 22 November 602. As you would have observed, Gregory was appointed Pope by an acclamation due to his family background and intimidating credentials. It follows therefore if Emperor Maurice did not consider Pope Gregory amenable to his whips and caprices to maintain the status quo of his administration that he would not have confirmed the election and consecration of Gregory 1 the Great as Pope, the general acclamation notwithstanding.

Please take judicious note that the Etymologist writes Gregory was very diligent in God’s Commandments also known as the Law of Moses that are embedded in the Old Testament Bible, which is part of the Old Covenant of Promise that now stands annulled and or fulfilled in the Lord Jesus Christ.  Equally note that both the God’s Commandments and or Old Covenant of Promise stands fulfilled in the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, having paid the supreme sacrifice with his life on the cross of Calvary, as hitherto demanded by the Law.  Most importantly, the Lord Jesus Christ, having abolished, annulled and or fulfilled the Abrahamic Old Covenant of Promise, the Law and its attendant Ordinances has now institutes a New Commandment, known as the tenets of the New Covenant of Grace that is embedded in the New Testament Bible before they were adulterated that shall be discussed in a separate post.  Therefore, Cross of Calvary Foundation – ccfn Inc finds that as Gregory only was very diligent in the God’s Commandments and not, we repeat, not the tenets of the New Covenant of Grace, which Messiah the Son of God enunciates that he is bound to make a shipwreck on the Catholics in particular and the entire Christendom in general as we shall shortly highlight.

The Appointments and Consecrations of Popes

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As the spate of uncertainty continues in the then Roman Empire, which makes Henry Moss to succinctly state even so it is very important to remember that in the eyes of the contemporaries the Roman Empire was still one and indivisible. He adds it would have been considered as falsehood the idea at that time to speak of either Eastern and or Western empire because the two blocs were still thought of as “the Eastern, or Western part (partes orinteis vel occidentis).  Therefore, Rome has to devise a means to stabilize the administration of the whole empire by tightening her grip on the Vatican City and to that extent, the entire Christendom. First, it is to have a firm grip on the Christendom that makes the Emperor Constantine whose profession of being a Christian is highly debatable not only to decriminalize Christian worship but to make Christianity a Roman State…

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The Appointments and Consecrations of Popes

As the spate of uncertainty continues in the then Roman Empire, which makes Henry Moss to succinctly state even so it is very important to remember that in the eyes of the contemporaries the Roman Empire was still one and indivisible. He adds it would have been considered as falsehood the idea at that time to speak of either Eastern and or Western empire because the two blocs were still thought of as “the Eastern, or Western part (partes orinteis vel occidentis).  Therefore, Rome has to devise a means to stabilize the administration of the whole empire by tightening her grip on the Vatican City and to that extent, the entire Christendom. First, it is to have a firm grip on the Christendom that makes the Emperor Constantine whose profession of being a Christian is highly debatable not only to decriminalize Christian worship but to make Christianity a Roman State Religion. Secondly, it is the same reason that brings Pope Gregory 1 the Great into the equation. The Good News Bible provided a background revelation to the intrigues surrounding appointments and consecrations of Popes in the Vatican City, when it records that Saint John in the Book of Revelation reveals he saw another beast coming up out of the earth, which has two horns like the horns of a lamb and or candor of the Lord Jesus Christ that speaks like a dragon, Lucifer the Devil.

Continuing, our working Bible highlights, “It used the vast authority of the first beast in its presence. It forced the earth and all who live on it to worship the first beast, whose wound had healed.  The second beast performed great miracles: it made fire come down out of heaven to the earth in the sight of everyone.  And it deceived all the people living on earth by means of the miracles which it was allowed to perform in the presence of the first beast.  The beast told them to build an image in honor of the beast that had been wounded by the sword and yet lived.  The second beast was allowed to breathe life into the image of the first beast, so that the image could talk and put to death all those who would not worship it. The beast forced all the people, small and great, rich and poor, slave and free, to have a mark placed on their right hands or on their foreheads.  No one could buy or sell unless he had this mark, that is, the beast’s name or the number that stands for the name.  This calls for wisdom.  Whoever is intelligent can work out the meaning of the number of the beast, because the number stands for a man’s name.  Its number is 666.”  Rev. 13: 11-18.

You will recall Cross of Calvary Foundation – ccfn Inc has already highlights among others that for the purposes of this exercise that she shall concentrate on the emperors that reined within 14 AD through to 590 AD because the period marks an inglorious era in the history of the Christendom in general and the Vatican City in particular.  Inglorious in the sense that it marks the beginning of the control of the Vatican and to a large extent the entire Christendom by the successive Roman Emperors by means of a promulgated Dogma and or Catholicism, which Tim Stanley recently reports in an article in the Telegraph Media Group Limited 2016 that not even His Holiness, Pope Francis has the power to change.

The Wikipedia in a subtitle, antichrist, another name for Man of Sin associated with Prophet Daniel’s “Little Horn” and Saint John’s Beast (Rev. 13), under the broad title, Catholicism, sought to apply other expressions to the antichrist such as “the abomination of desolation,” mentioned by Christ (Matt. 24: 15), the “king of a most fierce countenance,” in Gabriel’s explanation of the Little Horn of Daniel 8.  He adds Irenaeus was not very clear how “the sacrifice and the libation shall be taken away” during the “half-week,” or three and one-half years of the reign of the antichrist.

Among others and most importantly, the free encyclopedia avows Irenaeus is the first of the Church fathers to consider the mystic number “666.”  It records while the Church father, Irenaeus, profiles some solutions to unravel the mystical number “666” but that his interpretation was very much reserved. That cautiously, the Church father writes “but knowing the sure number declared by Scripture that is six hundred and six, let them await, in the first place, for the division of the kingdom into ten, then, in the next place, when those kings are reigning and beginning to set their affairs in order, and advance their kingdom into ten [let them learn] to acknowledge that he who shall come claiming the kingdom for himself and shall terrify those men of whom we have been speaking, have a name containing the aforesaid number, namely, is truly the abomination of the desolation.”  Adding although the Church father did speculates “upon three names to symbolize the mystical number, namely Euanthas, Teitan and Lateinos, however, were satisfied with the belief that the antichrist would arise in the future.”  He adds the antichrist shall arise after the fall of “Rome” and then the meaning of the number “666” as you are about to witness shall be revealed.

To a little bit expatiate on the Church father, Irenaeus’ profiles to unravel the mystical number “666” but that we read his interpretation was very much reserved, we crave your indulgence to define the word antichrist.  Defining it, one of our working data, 21st Century Dictionary, defines antichrist as an opponent of Christ and or the great opponent of Christ and Christianity, which the early Church expects to apply to the Pope.  Therefore, falling back to his advice that “let them learn” what the “Ten Horns of the Beast” are, kindly study the title, The Christianity and Catholicism to know more about the various ten horns, which are crowns or dynasties and the seven heads that constitute the frame-works, as slightly amended about fifty years ago within which any reigning emperor or pope rules, which His Holiness, Pope Francis recently commemorated. As was earlier pointed out, it is noteworthy to find that not all the Seven Ecumenical Councils are universally recognized as ecumenical.  We found the Church of the East accepts only the first two while the Oriental Orthodoxy accepts only three.  While Montrinitarian, such as Oneness Pentecostals, Unitarians, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Quakers, Christadelphians and Jehovah’s Witnesses reject the teachings of all the Seven Councils.

… To be continued